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The Ancient Port Of Adulis

The port of Adulis was one of greatest significance in Antiquity. It is best known for its role in Aksumite trade during the fourth – seventh centuries AD. It is connected to Aksum in Ethiopia by a tortuous mountain route to Qohaito, thence across the plateau to the city itself. However it is also a major port of the Periplus of the Erithraean Sea, a sailors’ hand-book of the first century AD. Not only did it offer a good harbour on the route to India, but it was a source for luxuries such as ivory, tortoise-shell and rhinoceros horn.

The site was first identified by Henry Salt, who visited it in 1810, and noted that the site was still called ‘Azoole’ by the natives. There is little reason to doubt Salt’s identification as it accords well with the Periplus. It lies in a deep bay of exactly the right dimensions (the Gulf of Zula, 200 stades = 33km deep) and at the entrance, near the other shore is a hilly island (Dissei), ‘Oreinê’ of the Periplus. It is about 10 hectares in extent and comprises substantial mounds, some of which have clear indications of walls. 

Eritrea

Tsorona-zalambessa

Zalambessa (Ge'ez: ዛላምበሳ) is a town located on the Ethiopian border. is part of the Misraqawi (Eastern) Zone of the Tigray Region It is about 37 kilometers north of Adigrat

History

Zalambessa was a village that was fortified by Italian colonial forces. The fortifications were taken over by the Ethiopian military in 1952 when Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia. The older village (Tsorona) remained under Eritrean Administration and the exact border became an issue before and during the Eritrean-Ethiopian War (1998–2000). 

In 2000, Eritrea and Ethiopia signed the Algiers Agreement (2000) which forwarded the border dispute to a Hague boundary commission. In the Agreement both parties agreed in advance to comply with the ruling of the Border Commission. In 2002, the commission ruling, reconfirmed and made more precise in their final ruling effective November 2007, placed Tsorona inside Eritrean territory, and Zalambessa inside Ethiopian territory.
Kuwaiti Prime Minister Sheikh Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah announced in July 2009, during a 3-day visit to Ethiopia, that his country would provide a $63 million loan to Ethiopia, part of which would be used to build a road between Wukro and Zalambessa

According to the Eritrean Information Ministry, Ethiopian Forces crossed the border early on New Year’s Day 2010, and engaged in a fierce battle with Eritrean troops before quickly withdrawing back over the border, after having 10 soldiers killed and 2 taken prisoner. Ethiopian government spokesman Bereket Simon denied that any armed incursion had taken place.

Eritrea

Gedam Tsaeda Emba

The Tsaeda Emba Monastery in Anseba region has been registered as one of the major tourist destination sites in Eritrea at large and the region in particular, stated Aba Woldekidan from the monastery. 

He noted that Tsaeda Emba Monastery is one of the oldest monasteries in the country, and its uniqueness as regards location and cultural treasures in it constitute major center of attraction both for domestic and international tourism.

Bishop Aron Andom, Secretary in charge of churches in Anseba region, commended the steps being taken to preserve the abundant historical and archaeological relics in Eritrea, and indicated that over 630 year-old holy books are housed inside the monastery.

He further reminded all the concerned authorities and the people to reinforce endeavors in making the monastery one of the highly visited places in Eritrea. 

Eritrea

Hamelmalo

Hamelmalo is a village situated some 15 kilometers from Keren on the way to Nakfa. The site is famous for its college of agriculture where students graduate  in Agricultural Economy, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Extension, Agronomy, Animal Science, Horticulture, Land and Environmental Resources, as well as Veterinary Science.

Eritrea

Omhajer Town

Omhajer Subregion is a subregion in the western Gash-Barka region (Zoba Gash-Barka) of Eritrea. Its capital lies at Omhajer. The area has a patented history with the Italians and the struggle between the Eritreans and Ethiopians.

Gash-Setit and Omhajer District is often referred to as "the breadbasket of Eritrea" because the area is agriculturally rich and more fertile than most of Eritrea.[1] Crops such as sorghum, millet, legumes, cotton and sesame are produced in the area. The high agricultural potential of the area was recognized by the Italians during the occupation and in 1928 they established the Alighidir cotton plantation in the area which provided cotton for the Barattolo Textile Factory in Asmara.[2] Citrus fruits and bananas were also produced in the Gash-Setit but many of the plantations were destroyed during the Eritrean War of Independence in the 1960s or by the Ethiopian army during the 2000 conflict.

The Tigre and Hedareb populations which introduced pastoral farming and grazing in the area has come into conflict with the Kunama peoples with the result that economic production in the area is now concentrated on arable farming 

Eritrea

The Lake Abha-bada

Gazing from a distance, the place looks like a hole in the surface of the earth facing towards the sky. But upon a closer look one can see that it is a pristine and eerily still lake in the middle of an arid and desert like area. Flanked by crescent shaped hill on one side and sand dunes on the other, the lake extends over a crater-like area of 20 sq. kms.  Named "Abha Bada", this lake is found in the Gelalo sub zone of the Northern Red Sea Region. Though its name literally means 'the smelly lake' in the Afar language, the lake is surprisingly fresh and clear.

Lake Abha Bada is the result of a volcanic eruption in the area some centuries ago. The source of the lake's water is in the sand dunes located on the east side of the lake. Though the water from this source is very warm, it can be used for drinking and doesn't burn the skin unlike hot springs in different parts of the country. 

Eritrea

Aligider

Aligider is located ten kilometers to the west of Teseney in the country of Eritrea. It is part of the Teseney sub-zone and has a diverse population. It is considered the last settlement in Eritrea before reaching the Sudanese Border and is located in the lowlands.

Agriculture, livestock raising and trade are very important to the economy of the area. Aligider has access to potable water from both the Gash River and underground water resources. Processes of irrigation have created an artificial marsh near the Gash River which provides a large habitat for many bird species.

Aligider was once an Italian frontier village.Aligider was an agricultural area, growing cotton and other crops, and managed by the Societa Impresse Africana (SIA). SIA helped develop Aligider into a company town, housing tenant farmers and other workers on the plantation. A school and clinic were set up and by the 1950s, the plantation employed 2,000 Eritreans, 15 Italians and "provided a residence for another 12,000 part time workers and family members."
A well-known Italian business that was established for many years in Aligider was the Barattolo cotton plantation which was established in 1965 by Roberto Barattolo in a purchase from SIA.This acquisition from the SIA allowed Barattolo to export knitwear to both Europe and the Middle East.

Aligider received significant damage from the sacking by Ethiopian forces. Many of the Italian artifacts left from its time as a frontier village were destroyed in 2001 through Ethiopian military actions.

Eritrea

Alebu

Alebu Fresh water factory, 24-hour power supplying generators, animal food processing factory, and dairy farm are some of the major industrial works at the present and these alone indicate what the future holds Alebu. The once scattered small hamlet is just starting on its journey to become a giant national industrial center.

The name Alebu is a Tigre word which relatively means bare or has nothing. Now, everything is there thanks to the endless endeavors of the Government. Years back it was difficult to cross the Alebu stream during the rainy season and I remember that it was one of the toughest parts of the uncomfortable journey. Some were forced to stay for days when the rains were heavy. Now, the construction of the Alebu Bridge has made it possible for travelers to cross it at any time or season. 
Most of the residents of Alebu are engaged in farming activities in the Gash River basin in addition to their vast seasonal farming activities and some lead nomadic life by raising all kinds of livestock. The farmers of Alebu are the main sources of fresh milk to the towns around them. Every household herds its own livestock, regardless their number, thus securing their milk and meat needs. Having hot milk and yogurt at the traditional-styled snack bars of Alebu are the favorites of many travelers.

Alebu is located in the Haikota sub-zone, where Eritrea’s armed struggle started in 1961. Now, benefiting a-24-hour power supply from the recently installed generators it is on a fast pace of development. The newly built road that connects it with the Goluj subzone, another agricultural center, also plays a central role for its progress.
Alebu — The Banatom Factory in Alebu has begun processing banana and tomatoes produced in the agricultural projects of Fanko-Gerset, Adi-Omar and Molober.

The Acting manager of the factory, Eng. Yemaneberhan Kahsai, pointed out that it is processing a total of 6,500 quintals of tomatoes within four days and stated that coordinated endeavors have been made to quickly supply quality tomatoes to the factory. He further indicated that the 300 quintals of tomatoes exported for experiment in demand proved to be competitive in the world market. Advanced technology would be introduced to facilitate the processing and controlling system so as to ensure sustainable market for its products, Eng. Yemaneberhan elaborated.

Eritrea

Tesenei City

Teseney (Tigrinya: ተሰነይ), also spelled Tessenei or Tesseney, is a market town in western Eritrea. It lies south-east of Kassala in Sudan, on the Gash River. The city was much fought over in the Eritrean War of Independence during which much of it was destroyed. After the war, Tessenei has become a governmental administrative center with customs and agricultural offices and a military base.

Overview
    
Teseney is located 45 kilometers from the Sudanese border and approximately 115 kilometers beyond Barentu. It is considered a frontier town on western Eritrea.The town is made up of people of various ethnic backgrounds. On the outskirts of Teseney to the north are a couple of hills from which there are exceptional views of the lowlands and mountains in Sudan. Also, farmers have been reporting of lions roaring in south of Teseney. In summer 2006, a young male lion was sighted and photographed, but since then, there has been no sighting and farmers do still report lions roars being echoed in the night.[citation needed] Monkeys and spotted hyenas form also part of Tessenei fauna, while acacia and Hyphaene thebaica palm locally known as Dom trees dominate its flora.[citation needed]
The name Tessenei with the diminutive of Seney, or Teseney, is not originally Tigrinya but Tigre, meaning “let it be nice to dwell”.[citation needed] It is also called Sabbot by its native local inhabitants. In 1929, it was called by the Italian colonizers the Village of Gasperini (named after the former colonial governor of Eritrea, a native of Treviso in Italy ).
    
Tessenei, is divided into several "Hillas" or districts / quarters, inhabited by different ethnic groups. There is in fact the Hillat Takarin which accommodates the ethnic group Takrour (originally emigrated Hausa and other clans from Nigeria hundreds of years ago), the Hillat Sudan (refers to the Sudanese community in the town) Hillat Halabit (inhabited by Beni Amer pastoralists); Hillat Somal (inhabited by Somalis, in the trading centre), built around a hill of granite blocks, just over 100 meter high, which separates it from the Hillat Takarin. There is small river that flows into the Gash: The stream Tadalay. Behind the hill runs an irrigation canal that takes water from the Gash, called Tur-a, (Arabic word for canal) and carries the waters from the stream to the lands cultivated with cotton, next to the village Ali Ghidir. The water supply is solved, thanks to a reservoir fed by a very old group of pumps (from the early 1930s) that draw water from the sands of the Gash. It is a huge deep basin, built on top on the small hill of granite, surrounded by old baobab trees. At the side of this large basin-tank, there was the Italian Civil Hospital, built in the 1920s, which for many years, has served the whole area near Tesseney, as far as the villages of Haikota, Gallug, Ali-Ghider, Talatahasher, Sabderat (villages bordering the Sudan), Sittimò, Aad Elit (village populated by about 1,000 individuals who speak a language all their own.

History

During the colonial period both Tessenei and the neighbouring village of Ali Ghider ( also written as Ali Gidir or Aligidir) were the center of a vast agricultural development project using the enormous quantity of waters of the Gash river.[1] The project dates back to 1905 when its first feasibility studies was forwarded by an Italian engineer called Nicola Coles. Works started in 1924 and included: a small dam and a tiny lake to store water (inaugurated in 1928 ) and numerous other works and a net of water irrigation canals to irrigate an approximately 10,000 hectares of land. An Italian agricultural-industrial company SIA, "Società Imprese Africane" (Company on African Enterprises), won this major concession.[1] Later a consortium of which "Cotonificio Barattolo", with its seat in Asmara became the main shareholder.The main crop was cotton, a variety of Sakellaridis, the same as cultivated in Egypt and the entire production was exported to Italy where it enjoys customs facilities. A plant for the treatment of cotton, a large mill for the processing of seeds, a power plant and a workshop complete the work, along with a modern factory for spinning and weaving cotton was built in Tessenei. During the Anglo-Egyptian condominium a narrow gauge line of railway was built connecting Tessnei with Kassala in Sudan via Malwaya conjunction. This line has almost vanished since the early 1960s.

Eritrea

Nakfa

Nakfa (Tigrinya: ናቕፋ, IPA: [naxʼfa]) is a town in the Northern Red Sea region of Eritrea. It is also the name of a sub region of Eritrea.

History
 
Nakfa served as a base for the Eritrean People's Liberation Front during the Eritrean War of Independence. It was subjected to a number of destructive attacks that left only the mosque standing. Other towns, where hospitals, printing presses, factories, a radio station and a college are located, were built underground by Eritrea's independence fighters. The town is also surrounded by trenches.

The nakfa currency was later named after the town, in commemoration to its historic place in the annals of the independence struggle.

 

Eritrea